Posted by admin on 2019-01-12 in 苏州美甲 with No Comments

US writer Norman Mailer, who died earlier this month, has been posthumously awarded this year's Bad Sex in Fiction prize.


Mailer, a giant of the American literary scene, won the more prestigious Pulitzer Prize twice during his lifetime, but award organisers said they felt he would have been pleased with the latest trophy.

“We are sure that he would have taken the prize in good humour,” the judges said.

They paid homage to Mailer, who died of kidney failure at the age of 84, as a great American man of letters and hailed his “innovative journalism, his combative spirit and his love of life”.

However, they could not resist awarding him the prize for a graphic episode in his novel The Castle in the Forest.

'Dreaded' prize

The winning passage, which leaves little to the imagination, begins: “So Klara turned head to foot and put her most unmentionable part down on his hard-breathing nose and mouth and took his old battering ram into her lips.”

The award most dreaded by authors was established in 1993 by the late Auberon Waugh when he was editor-in-chief of The Literary Review.

Previous winners have included US writer Tom Wolfe and British author Sebastian Faulks.

Mailer, renowned for his biting prose, penchant for controversy and larger-than-life personality, provoked and enraged readers with his acerbic views on US politics and the wars in Vietnam and Iraq.

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Pakistani authorities say they know who ambushed the Sri Lankan cricket team in Lahore, killing eight people and wounding players and officials.


Dramatic footage of the gunmen making a leisurely getaway from the scene of Tuesday\’s deadly assault opened the floodgates to criticism that security forces should have done more to prevent it.

“We have identified the people who did the operation,” provincial governor Salman Taseer announced.

Pakistan is steeped in political violence, and suspicion has fallen mainly on Islamic militants linked to al-Qaeda and the Taliban.

Police have brought in around two dozen people for questioning but no leads have been announced.

“We have a lot of information. We have arrested many people, rounded up some suspects… but the final investigation will be presented to me tomorrow; till then I am not in a position to say more,” said Taseer.

New CCTV footage found

Up to 12 men attacked the convoy of officials, coaches and players, firing automatic weapons, grenades and a rocket launcher as the vehicles approached Lahore\’s cricket ground. The attackers fled without a trace.

The new footage, captured by closed-circuit cameras, shows two suspects wearing rucksacks and ambling down the road, apparently untroubled after the carnage took place. They then jump on motorbikes and speed off.

Police released sketches of four suspects.

No one has claimed responsibility for the assault, which killed eight Pakistanis and wounded 19 people, including seven Sri Lankan players and an assistant coach.

Pakistani politicians have accused the government of a “serious security lapse” and highlighted reports that the authorities were warned of a possible attack.

The top government official for Lahore conceded on Thursday that there were gaps in security provision for the Sri Lankan team.

\’High level\’ security pledge

“A terrorist has to succeed only once, whereas security has to be successful all the time. After every incident one gets wiser. You get to know all the gaps and how you should not repeat those gaps,” said Khusro Pervaiz.

More than 1,600 people have been killed in attacks in Pakistan over the past 22 months, and al-Qaeda and Taliban militants have forged a de facto safe haven in the country\’s lawless northwest along the border with Afghanistan.

For decades, Pakistan\’s ISI military intelligence agency has fostered Islamist militant groups in Kashmir and Afghanistan, and there are suspicions that some ISI elements have links to militants inside the country.

Chris Broad, the match referee for this week\’s Test, angered officials by saying Pakistan security forces had left the convoy vehicles like “sitting ducks”.

“We were promised high level security and in our hour of need, that security vanished,” he said.

Simon Taufel, an Australian umpire caught in the attack, said their bus had been left unprotected once the assault began.

“You tell me why supposedly 20 armed commandos were in our convoy and when the team bus got going again, we were left on our own? I don\’t have any answers to these questions.”

Pakistan tours called off

Pakistan cricket chief Ijaz Butt accused Broad of lying about poor security and said he would make an official complaint to the International Cricket Council (ICC).

“It is a big lie that there were no policeman. We will lodge a protest with the ICC,” said Butt.

Pakistan has a long history of unsolved political violence.

Former premier Benazir Bhutto was assassinated in December 2007, and many here have expressed doubts whether her killers can ever be brought to justice.

Tuesday\’s attack was also a serious blow for cricket in Pakistan, where millions follow the game passionately, and has deepened the isolation of a country now shunned by much of the world cricket community.

The Bangladesh Cricket Board announced on Thursday that Pakistan\’s cricket tour of Bangladesh, scheduled to start later this week, has been postponed.

New Zealand has indicated a tour of Pakistan set for November will likely be called off, and the ICC has raised doubts about whether Pakistan will still co-host cricket\’s 2011 World Cup.

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Two weeks ago a public school in the town of Gerona in the rich northeastern region of Catalonia said Shaima Saidani, 9, could not attend classes wearing the headscarf, or hijab, as it was against its norms.


The girl returned to school Tuesday after Catalonia's regional government ruled that her right to an education was more important than the institution's norms, which it says amounted to discrimination.

‘Just like other girls’

"I don't understand it because I am the same as the other girls and I am not hurting anyone," Shaima told Catalan daily newspaper El Periodico when asked if she understood why she had been prevented from attending school.

Shaima, who says she wants to be a doctor, lived most of her life with her grandmother in Morocco where she received a religious education.

Her parents say it is her decision to wear the headscarf.

The Socialist government of Prime Minister Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero reaffirmed its opposition to a ban on the use of headscarves in public schools, calling Shaima's case "unique."

Regulation on matter

But the main opposition conservative Popular Party and the regional moderate Catalan nationalists CiU both called for a law regulating the use of the hijab.

"All people who live in Spain have the obligation to respect our juridical order, our laws and our values," Popular Party leader Mariano Rajoy says.

The communist United Left party went further, urging Spain to adopt a law like the one that come into force in France in 2004 that bans religious symbols in public schools.

Roman Catholic traditions

Fermin Bouza, a sociology professor at the Complutense University in Madrid, says it is unlikely the Spain, where the Roman Catholic faith still plays an important role in society, would follow the example of France, which has a long secular tradition.

"As long as it is just a veil, which is a small symbol, there will be no problem.

“You have to remember that 30 years ago in Spain many women wore shawls," he says.

"I don't think there is a real reason for tension here where Catholics have the habit of wearing religious medals," he adds.

Immigrant influx

The issue of the Muslim veil is a relatively new one for Spain which has seen the number of immigrants living within its borders soar from around half a million in 1996 to 4.48 million at the end of last year, out of a total population of 45.12 million people, according to government figures.

Moroccans make up Spain's largest foreign community with some 576,000 residents.

There are now 531,000 immigrant children attending Spain's schools, including 90,000 from North Africa.

Case will ‘blow over’

The Union of Islamic Communities in Spain, which represents the nation's Muslim community, welcomed the decision to allow Shaima to attend school and predicted the issue would blow over.

"In Spain the constitution guarantees freedom of religion. Shaima's case is unique. I don't think this controversy will go much further," the body's president Riay Tatary Bakry says.

In several other European Union states the use of the hijab in schools has been allowed in the name of civil liberty or schools have been given permission to decide their own policy.

Posted by admin on 2019-09-15 in 苏州美甲 with No Comments

Apple has simultaneously released two new iPhones for the first time in its history as the company responds to an increasingly competitive global handset market.


At an event at Apple’s California headquarters early on Monday morning (AEST), CEO Tim Cook unveiled an updated version of the iPhone 5 – called the 5S – and an unprecedented budget model – the 5C.

Both were widely anticipated by industry pundits following numerous leaks of parts and marketing material in recent months.

As expected, the 5S looks almost identical to the iPhone 5. The most notable innovations are a fingerprint-reading security sensor built into the home button and a 64-bit processing chip, meaning it works faster. Both are firsts in smartphone technology.

It is also the first iPhone to come in a ‘champagne’ colour in addition to the customary black and white, and Apple have boosted the camera, flash and battery slightly.

The 5C, by contrast, signals a shift in Apple’s smartphone strategy. It is essentially an iPhone 5 with a plastic shell, available in several colours – including blue, pink, yellow, white, and green.

But, crucially, at a knock-down price.

In the US, the 16GB version will cost $US99 ($A108) and the 32GB version $US199 with a two-year plan, but no other pricing information has been released.

It is seen as Apple’s attempt to break into emerging markets like China, where higher-range models are too expensive for many.

Apple’s failure to entice buyers in emerging markets is one reason the company now trails Korean giant Samsung in global smartphone sales.

Apple has traditionally sought to capture emerging markets with older iPhone models, which become cheaper when new models are released.

But that approach has failed, said Foad Fadaghi, an analyst at technology research firm Telsyte.

The older phones are viewed as inferior and second-hand. The 5C is all about “being relevant in China”.

The new phones are indicative of a shift in Apple’s strategy in the post-Steve Jobs era away from dazzling innovations and towards selling more products to more people, Fadaghi said.

“This is very much indicative of a new Apple that is focused on not losing out in markets, and returning value to its shareholders over and above innovating.”

He doubted the 5C would have much impact in Australia, because phones are generally included in plans for free.

If anything, it may appeal to pre-paid customers who are after a cheaper phone, he said.

Apple have said that iPhone 5C pre-orders start on September 13. iPhone 5C and 5S will go on sale a week later in Australia, the US, Canada, China, France, Germany, Japan, Singapore and the UK.

The company also says its next mobile operating system, iOS 7, will be available as a free download on September 18.

Craig Federighi, head of software at Apple, said at the same event that “downloading iOS 7 is like getting an all new device.”

The new system can be downloaded on the iPhone 4 and later models, as well as on tablets beginning with the iPad 2.

Posted by admin on 2019-09-15 in 苏州美甲 with No Comments

Melbourne Storm are confident their suspect left-side defence will hold up under serious pressure from South Sydney’s biggest weapon Greg Inglis when the teams open the NRL finals series on Friday night.


The Rabbitohs would have watched with interest how Manly recently carved up the Storm, scoring all six of their tries down that left-hand channel through Brett Finch, Will Chambers and Sisa Waqa.

Fullback Inglis, who Melbourne skipper Cameron Smith this week described as “unstoppable”, will be certain to test that side at ANZ Stadium.

Storm speedster Justin O’Neill said he thought the Manly game was a one-off and was confident Melbourne’s backline could contain Inglis and his dangerous teammates led by clever halfback Adam Reynolds.

“Manly definitely targeted our left side and had a bit of success,” O’Neill said.

“We’ve definitely learnt from our mistakes and want to fix that up.

“The areas that we had a bit of trouble in on that night we’ve fixed up and if Souths want to target the left side we’ll do all right in defending it.”

O’Neill knows former Storm boy Inglis’ game well, playing outside him in his debut year in the NRL in 2010 and scoring nine tries.

“I was fortunate to play outside him and I think that’s where most of my tries came from that year,” the 22-year-old said.

“It was a great experience … he’s a freak.

“I learnt a lot off him and it builds your confidence as a young fella coming through to play outside someone that skilled and that good a player.”

The Storm are waiting to see if Finch makes a full recovery from a sternum/shoulder injury to take his place, with England international Gareth Widdop waiting in the wings after his own comeback from injury.

“Gaz was playing great footy at the start of the year and it was unfortunate that he got injured,” O’Neill said.

“We were lucky to have Finchy to fill the spot really well so I guess we’ll see how he goes but Gaz is right to play.”

O’Neill, who is in line for Queensland Origin selection next year, said there were similarities from their triumphant 2012 NRL season but the team wasn’t relying on that.

He felt their hard-fought golden point win over Gold Coast last round was the ideal launching pad for their finals assault.

“It was a gutsy performance and more Storm-like.

“It was definitely a tough, grinding game and it was good to get a game like that under our belt coming into the finals.”

Posted by admin on 2019-09-15 in 苏州美甲 with No Comments

The English and French elite clubs have said they will establish two 20-team competitions to replace the Heineken and Challenge Cup tournaments from 2014 after they were unsuccessful in reaching agreement with organisers on a new structure from next year.


“Despite numerous meetings between the stakeholders over the last year … discussions have been unsuccessful and the clubs can only conclude that negotiations on any new European agreement have now ended,” Premiership Rugby, which represents England’s top flight clubs, said in a statement on Tuesday.

Premiership Rugby said they had full support of the French clubs, who would not compete in any European competition without their English counterparts.

“Given the importance and urgency of the current position … the clubs have now asked Premiership Rugby to take immediate action to put in place a competition for 2014/15 to include the French and English clubs but which will also be open to teams from other countries,” Premiership Rugby added.

Clubs from England and France have long been at loggerheads with European Rugby Cup (ERC), the organisers of the European competitions, though revenue sharing and television rights appear to be at the forefront of the dispute with a battle between British pay TV operators BSkyB and BT.

BSkyB has agreed a four-year deal with the ERC to screen European club competitions from 2014, but rival BT has a separate agreement to broadcast the English Premiership and matches involving English clubs competing in Europe.

British newspaper The Guardian also reported in April that BT would broadcast French Top 14 games, while the clubs believed ERC did not have the right to negotiate the agreement with BSkyB as they had instigated a two-year notice period clause in their participation contract in 2012.

The newspaper added on Wednesday that revenue sharing agreements and greater control over the game by the clubs were also important issues in dispute.


The English and French teams also believe that clubs from Ireland, Scotland, Wales and Italy have an unfair advantage in the European competitions as they compete in a separate ‘Pro-12’ league with no relegation while English and French clubs face relegation from their own national competitions.

Because of the lack of relegation, local media have highlighted a two-tiered approach by several clubs to field vastly different teams for the lucrative European fixtures from those that play in their ‘domestic league’.

ERC said all parties were due to meet in Dublin on Wednesday to discuss the tournaments’ future structure.

“While there is a shared sense of frustration among ERC’s stakeholders at the lack of progress towards a new accord, the meeting will provide an opportunity for the parties to review the consultation process to date,” ERC said in a statement.

“The current accord, which was agreed by all stakeholders in 2007, includes a two-year notice period which began on 1 June 2012 to allow for negotiations towards the formulation of a new agreement.

“The structure and format of both the Heineken Cup and the Amlin Challenge Cup remain in place until the end of the 2013/14 season.”

(Reporting by Greg Stutchbury in Wellington; Editing by Nick Mulvenney)

Posted by admin on 2019-09-15 in 苏州美甲 with No Comments

Considering that just five years ago he was written off by pundits as ‘unelectable’ and having no ‘people skills’, the fact that Tony Abbott is now the Prime Minister of Australia is remarkable.


Those who underestimated and misunderstood Mr Abbott have been proven wrong. Far from being the Liberal equivalent of Mark Latham – where a game-changing gaffe was always around the corner – Mr Abbott has shown himself to be disciplined and measured. It’s a stark contrast to the chaos surrounding Kevin Rudd and Julia Gillard.

Yet, despite a thumping defeat last Saturday, the Labor Party is still in denial. Kevin Rudd was in denial when he delivered a triumphant appraisal of Labor’s dismal results in what was supposed to be a concession speech.

Bruce Hawker was in denial when he tried to blame Labor Campaign HQ instead of his own strategic failures in what many say was a calamitous campaign. Graham Richardson was in denial when he said the loss wasn’t as bad as he expected – despite the fact that Kevin Rudd delivered one of the lowest primary votes for Labor in a century. Tanya Plibersek was in denial when she said Labor got a 9 out of 10 for governing the country in the face of a litany of policy failures, chaos and budget blowouts. And Chris Bowen was in denial when he said Kevin Rudd should stick around on the back bench because he would have plenty to contribute in the future.

This, in particular, ignores the elephant – no, woolly mammoth – in the room: that it’s been Kevin Rudd’s erratic tenure as PM, followed by his constant undermining and destabilisation, which has helped lead Labor from government to opposition.

It’s high time that the Labor Party accepted the election result rather than clinging to what could have been. It needs to heed the advice of former party elders like Warren Mundine and start reconnecting with real working people rather than trying to control the news cycle.

The early signs are not very positive. There have been signals from various Labor MPs suggesting that they will contest the repealing of the carbon tax. There’s talk of elevating Bill Shorten – the kingmaker who brought down two Prime Ministers – to the leadership. And Kevin Rudd shows no intention to resign from Parliament in order to give the rump he leaves behind the clear air to rebuild for the future.

As for Tony Abbott, true to form he is transitioning into government with minimal fuss and with enormous authority. Some of the recent commentary indicates that the new Senate will be difficult for him to manage. But the “micro” party senators appear to be broadly of the centre or centre-right which should be a welcome change from the Labor-Greens alliance that has prevailed for the last three years.

Where he may run into difficulty is trying to get his paid parental leave scheme, with the likes of the Liberal Democrats and others vowing oppose it. Paradoxically, the Greens have said they support the policy, albeit at a lower cap of $100,000. But it seems unlikely that Mr Abbott will see fit to do deals with the Greens.

Whatever the case, there are certainly interesting times ahead.

Robert Candelori is a law student at the University of NSW and a member of the Liberal Party.

Posted by admin on 2019-09-15 in 苏州美甲 with No Comments

Prime minister-elect Tony Abbott may not know for weeks who he’ll have to deal with in the Senate.


Australian Electoral Commission (AEC) spokesman Phil Diak says current assessments of who will become Senators after July 1 next year are based on a provisional quota.

But the final quota could only be set once all postal votes arrive, with the AEC setting September 20 as the deadline for their arrival.

“There won’t be any declaration of the Senate until into the following week after the postals deadline on September 20 or the week after that, depending on how it’s going in the larger states,” he told ABC radio.

Mr Diak said that was no different to the 2010 federal election, when the biggest Senate count for NSW was not finalised until the fourth week after the election.

In the count for the House of Representatives, the AEC still classed six seats as close, with a one per cent difference between leading candidates.

Closest is Barton in NSW where there’s just 14 votes between Liberal Nick Varvaris and Labor’s Steve McMahon.

Much attention has centred on the Victoria seat of Indi, where Liberal Sophie Mirabella is facing a strong challenge from independent Cathy McGowan, 764 ahead at close of counting on Tuesday night.

Mr Diak said the AEC will consider some 2000 postal votes on Wednesday, as it did on Tuesday, when Ms Mirabella gained some 15 votes in every 100 counted. There could be as many as 10,000 postal votes altogether.

In the NSW seat of Eden-Monaro, Liberal Peter Hendy is 470 ahead of sitting Labor MP Mike Kelly.

Mr Diak said there would be an automatic recount for any seat where’s there’s less than 100 votes between contenders after full distribution of preferences.

Posted by admin on 2019-08-15 in 苏州美甲 with No Comments

Suicides increased by 45 per cent during the first four years of Greece’s financial crisis, a mental health aid group says, warning there are indications of a further “very large rise” over the past two years.


The Athens-based group Klimaka on Tuesday said officially reported suicides rose steadily, accounting for an annual jump in deaths from 328 in 2007 to 477 in 2011, according to data from the Greek Statistical Authority.

The group said, based on its own research, the number of suicides had continued to rise through 2012 and 2013.

Greece still has one of the lowest suicide rates in Europe, but a dramatic rise in poverty and unemployment since the debt-strapped nation began imposing harsh austerity measures has been blamed for the increase in deaths.

Aris Violatzis, head psychiatrist at Klimaka, said the organisation gathered suicide data from families of victims, local churches, funeral homes and other sources, as well as official statistics.

“The official stats are generally lagging. Our data suggests a very large rise. We are talking about specific individuals whose names and circumstances have been recorded,” Violatzis said.

Klimaka, which runs a suicide prevention hotline, said men took their own lives more than four times as frequently as women, with males most commonly in their mid-50s and females in their late 30s. Some 43 per cent of suicide deaths in 2011 involved unemployed people, while 25.7 per cent of hotline callers with suicidal thoughts last year said they were experiencing serious financial difficulties.

The Greek aid group urged the government to adopt plans to create a national strategy against the rise in suicides, with improved data gathering and training for police and health care workers.

“For every suicide death, there are some 30 attempts by others,” Violatzis said.

“So, we are creating a growing bank of people who are potentially suicidal. That is a long-term problem.”

* Readers seeking support and information about suicide prevention can contact Lifeline on 13 11 14, Kids Helpline on 1800 55 1800 (for young people aged 5 to 25), or MensLine Australia 1300 78 99 78.

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South Sydney coach Michael Maguire says Sam Burgess is disappointed at getting involved in some recent dubious incidents that have hurt the Rabbitohs, but has backed him to show the positive side of his game in Friday’s NRL qualifying final against Melbourne.


The big English lock is one of the key go forward men in the powerful Rabbitohs pack.

However, his behaviour has come under increasing scrutiny in recent weeks,

He was suspended for two matches for a squirrel grip and was involved in a couple of incidents in last week’s minor premiership decider against the Roosters.

At one point he appeared to go through the motion of gouging Roosters five-eighth James Maloney and in another instance, appeared to knee prop Jared Waerea-Hargreaves, though he wasn’t cited in either case.

Maguire said he spoken to Burgess about the incidents in the Roosters clash.

“Everything that goes on in the game, you are always talking to your players about those incidences,” Maguire said on Wednesday.

“Hes’ obviously disappointed, but the easiest way to fix that is make sure he goes out and plays the way he can and I’m sure he will this Friday.”

Maguire was confident Burgess would channel his aggression in more positive ways against Melbourne.

“There’s many different ways he can focus his energies into what he does on the park and you see that every week,” Maguire said.

“He’s had a couple of incidences and its one thing that he knows hurts the team at times.

“If he gets ahead of his game, he’s going to become a better player and he wants to become a better player.”

Maguire wasn’t concerned teams would try to niggle his players, though he has addressed the issue with them.

He conceded Melbourne might look at that tactic, though Storm captain Cameron Smith this week ruled out trying to bait any of the Burgess brothers.

“It’s something that we’re going to make sure we fix,” Maguire said.

“It’s in our hands to fix that and that’s what a we need to go about as a team.”

Halfback Adam Reynolds was sure the Rabbitohs would keep their cool through the finals series.

“I’m sure everyone will be pretty calm, you don’t want to do anything stupid in these big games,” Reynolds said.

“A little incident can cost you.”

Posted by admin on 2019-08-15 in 苏州美甲 with No Comments

(Transcript from World News Australia Radio)

While most people experience sleep difficulties at some time in their lives, scientists suspect refugees may have a much higher incidence of sleep disorders than other Australians.


And while problems sleeping have been much studied from a medical perspective, cross-cultural attitudes to sleep have received less attention.

The University of Victoria is taking a closer look at the sleeping habits of recently arrived Sudanese refugees to find out how culture, migration and, in many cases, trauma are affecting these Australians’ sleeping habits.

Sleep should be a simple enough process – assume a relaxed or horizontal position, close the eyes and wake around eight hours later hopefully refreshed and ready to take on another day.

But how and when we sleep and with whom varies from culture to culture.

Dorothy Bruck is a Professor of Psychology at Victoria University.

She and other researchers at the university’s Centre for Cultural Diversity & Wellbeing are taking a closer look at the sleeping habits of Australia’s South Sudanese population.

Professor Bruck explains why.

“It’s because they’re a very large group of newly-arrived migrants yet they’ve been settled here for between five and ten years. Basically we don’t know anything about their sleep and we don’t know whether they indeed have as we suspect high levels of sleep disorders, including insomnia, and the extent to which these might be related to the traumas that they’ve experienced back in the Sudan before they were able to flee that country. And also because they come from more traditional societies where sleep is often seen in quite different terms.”

Professor Bruck says the South Sudanese population is of particular interest because they come from a developing country, where different patterns of sleep are observed over the 24-hour period to those commonly seen in the West.

She says in many developing countries sleep isn’t always taken as a single eight-hour block as it commonly is in Western countries.

Sleeping for say a four-hour-block, and then waking up and doing something else for an hour or so, before falling asleep again for another couple of hours, is commonplace.

Napping is also more widespread than it is in Australia.

As for insomnia, Professor Bruck says other studies have shown insomnia is also seen differently in some other parts of the world.

“We did a study that was published this year, immigrants from Zimbabwe and Ghana and what we found when we asked them about their beliefs and attitudes to insomnia is that they see it very much as a physical thing, a bodily thing that you might go to a doctor about, rather than something that might be related to worry or stress, which I think is interesting. I think in Western society we do realise that a lot of how you sleep is related to what you take in your head when you go to bed, whereas what the immigrants from Africa were telling us is that you see it as something that’s got much more to do with the body, which is indeed how they see depression as well, that it’s much more a physical thing rather than a mental thing.”

Research from Virginia Tech in the United States supports Professor Bruck’s view that the eight-hour block of uninterrupted sleep is a fairly recent phenomenon in Western culture.

The biggest change to our sleep patterns occurred when electric light was introduced.

Prior to that segmented sleep was considered normal.

Yasmine Musharbash is a senior lecturer in the Anthropology Department at the University of Sydney.

She spent 18 months living with and researching the sleeping patterns of the Warlpiri people in the Northern Territory.

She says while some things are changing, other aspects of their traditional sleeping behaviour remain, such as co-sleeping with people other than one’s intimate partner and taking sleep in shorter segments.

“It’s not just the sleeping with others but it’s also the way in which sleep really isn’t seen as we see it, that it should be this uninterrupted period at night. There’s like lots of little portions of it where people don’t get grumpy for example when they get woken up in the middle of the night. In fact they get very grumpy when they don’t get woken up if something’s happened. The other thing that comes along with that is that I can’t think of a Warlpiri person that when they are woken up and it doesn’t matter if it’s 3am in the morning or an afternoon snooze when they get woken up that they’re ever grumpy. Like I get grumpy. They don’t. There’s a specific way of waking people up that you gently touch their belly first to settle down their spirit. And then you talk to them very quietly, the waking up is a very gentle process.”

Dr Maree Barnes is a sleep physician with the Australian Sleep Health Foundation.

She says technology is one of the biggest threats to human sleep, with the lights and sounds emanating from devices such as computers and phones tricking our bodies into thinking it’s daylight, affecting our ability to fall asleep.

Dr Barnes says co-sleeping is another factor influencing sleep, a practice which is more widespread in western societies than many people think.

And while it’s common in many countries, in industrialised nations it remains a contentious issue.

“The prevalence of co-sleeping in our society is quite high, I think, people just don’t talk about it. And that’s not just co-sleeping with children but also co-sleeping with their animals dogs and cats in particular. The data as I recall is that up to 20 per cent of the population actually co-sleeps with somebody apart from their domestic partner. The number of people in some people’s beds is quite astounding: like it can be up to five people in the bed, by the time you have a couple of children and maybe a cat or a dog. Whether or not co-sleeping is good for you is a bit problematic and quite a sensitive question I think, and certainly culturally co-sleeping with children has been seen to be an essential component of the culture in some communities.”

Along with the impact of migration, Professor Dorothy Brucks’s research into the sleeping habits of recently arrived Sudanese-Australians will also consider the impact of mental health, shift work and stimulant intake on the sleep patterns of this group.

Professor Bruck says there’s a lot to learn from studying the impact of culture on sleep.

“If we look at cultures all around the world, we see that sleep is interpreted in very different ways between different cultures and between the western culture and the more traditional cultures. And that’s going to have implications on how we deal with their sleep problems, how we best help them.”

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Prehistoric crocodiles survived a dinosaur-dominated world by running around like dogs, new research has found.


Unlike today’s crocodiles that mostly live in freshwater habitats and feed on mammals and fish, their ancient relatives were extremely diverse.

Some behaved like dogs and others adapted to life in the open ocean, imitating the feeding behaviour of today’s killer whales.

The research uncovers the hidden past of crocodiles – showing for the first time how the jaws of the fierce reptiles evolved, enabling them to survive in vastly different environments in a dinosaur-dominated world 235 to 65 million years ago.

The study was conducted by Tom Stubbs and Dr Emily Rayfield from the University of Bristol, together with Dr Stephanie Pierce from The Royal Veterinary College and Dr Phil Anderson from Duke University in the United States.

Mr Stubbs says the ancestors of today’s crocodiles have a fascinating history that is relatively unknown compared to their dinosaur counterparts.

“They were very different creatures to the ones we are familiar with today, much more diverse and, as this research shows, their ability to adapt was quite remarkable,” he said.

“Their evolution and anatomical variation during the Mesozoic Era was exceptional.

“They evolved lifestyles and feeding ecologies unlike anything seen today.”

The research team examined variation in the morphology (shape) and biomechanics (function) of the lower jaws in over 100 ancient crocodiles, using a unique combination of numerical methods.

Dr Pierce said they were curious how extinction events and adaptations to extreme environments during the Mesozoic – a period covering over 170 million years – impacted the feeding systems of ancient crocodiles.

“To do this we focused our efforts on the main food-processing bone, the lower jaw.”

By analysing variation in the lower jaw, the researchers provide novel insights into how the feeding systems of ancient crocodiles evolved as the group recovered from the devastating end-Triassic extinction event and subsequently responded to the distribution of ecological resources, such as habitat and foodstuff.

The research showed that, following the end-Triassic extinction, ancient crocodiles invaded the Jurassic seas and evolved jaws built primarily for hydrodynamic efficiency to capture agile prey, such as fish.

However, only a small range of elongate lower jaw shapes were suitable in Jurassic marine environments.

The study also revealed that variation peaked again in the Cretaceous, where ancient crocodiles evolved a great variety of lower jaw shapes as they adapted to a diverse range of feeding ecologies and terrestrial environments alongside the dinosaurs.

Surprisingly, the lower jaws of Cretaceous crocodiles did not have a great amount of biomechanical variation and, instead, the fossil record points towards novel adaptations in other areas of their anatomy, such as armadillo-like body armour.

“Our results show that the ability to exploit a variety of different food resources and habitats, by evolving many different jaw shapes, was crucial to recovering from the end-Triassic extinction and most likely contributed to the success of Mesozoic crocodiles living in the shadow of the dinosaurs,” Dr Pierce said.

This exceptional variation has never before been explored numerically, with no studies ever having incorporated such a wide range of crocodiles over such a long time period.

The findings are published in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B.

The research was partially funded by the Natural Environment Research Council and the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council.

Posted by admin on 2019-08-15 in 苏州美甲 with No Comments

Peru fell out of the running as both teams, who met in the 2011 Copa America third-place playoff won by the Peruvians, needed a victory to stay in the hunt for a place in Brazil next year.


Venezuela are in sixth place in the nine-nation South American group with 19 points and one match remaining, three points behind fourth-placed Ecuador and Uruguay, in fifth. Both have two matches left.

The top four at the end of the campaign next month qualify with the fifth-placed team meeting Asia’s Jordan in a two-legged playoff for one more berth at the finals.

The visitors took the lead with their first chance in the 20th minute, Paolo Hurtado skipping over Fernando Amorebieta’s challenge on the right and beating goalkeeper Daniel Hernandez with a low shot.

Venezuela equalised in the 37th minute when striker Salomon Rondon took a square pass from midfielder Cesar Gonzalez inside the box and shot low inside the near post.

Gonzalez put the home team in front in with a 62nd-minute penalty after Peru defender Carlos Zambrano handled the ball.

Venezuela captain Juan Arango hit the bar with a fine dipping free kick in the 72nd minute and five minutes later they went 3-1 up with substitute Romulo Otero’s goal inside the base of the post from Yohandry Orozco’s pass from the right.

Zambrano pulled a goal back for Peru with a header one minute from time.

Peru, who have not been to the finals since 1982, have not won a qualifier away in 22 matches spanning nine years since a 3-1 victory against Uruguay in Montevideo in 2004.

(Reporting by Diego Ore; Writing by Rex Gowar in Buenos Aires, editing by Nick Mulvenney)

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